Nature and causation of disease

 

Disease or dis - ease

 

Aetiology

endogenous  - arising within the organism

exogenous   - originating outside the organism

 

 

Endogenous

Dominant

Recessive

Autosomal

Sex-linked

Mutations

Polygenetic

 

 

Chromosomal

 

 

Congenital disorders

Deficiency

Teratogenic

Infections

Rhesus incompatibility

 

 

Exogenous disease

 

Mechanical causes

temperature

radiation

atmospheric pressure

electricity

 

Chemical causes

Effects may be local or systemic

Acids and alkalines

Heavy metals

Air pollution

Water/food pollution

Special areas of body, e.g. eye, mouth

Medicines as poisons

Intoxication

Auto-intoxication, eg renal failure

 

Malnutrition

shortage

surplus

unbalanced diet

combinations of these factors

 

 

Biological causes

An infectious disease meets Koch`s postulates

Diseases caused by pathogenic micro-organisms

bacteria

fungi

virus

protozoa

mycoplasm

metazoans

prions

 

Vascular causes

Macrovascular

Microvascular

Ischaemic heart disease

Cerebrovascular disease

 

Allergy and hypersensivity

Antigen - antibody reaction

Allergens may take many forms

Asthma

Local allergy

Systemic allergy

 

Autoimmunity

A specific body tissue is attacked by the immune system

Diabetes mellitus type 1

Myasthenia gravis

Rheumatoid disease

 

Neoplasm

An abnormal (new) mass of tissue

A tumour

Cancer is a malignant neoplasm

Tumours may be benign

 

Causes of cancer;

ionising radiation

carcinogenic chemicals

oncogenic viruses

oncogenes

 

Degenerative causes

Wear and tear

Accumulation of unwanted material

 

Vascular disease

Atherosclerosis

Arteriosclerosis

Arteriolosclerosis

 

Psychiatric problems

Functional

Organic

May be psychotic or neurotic

Psychosomatic disorders.

Interaction of factors in terms of the whole person.

 

 

Terms

aetiology

aneurysm

arteriosclerosis

atherosclorosis

carcinogenic

embolism

haematemesis

haematuria

iatrogenic

inflammation

infarction

ischaemia

multifactorial aetiology                                      necrosis

pathogenic micro-organism                                pathogenesis

sclerosis                                                           shock

thrombosis

 

Identify aetiological factors for the following diseases.

Pneumonia

Haemophilia

Blue-green colour blindness

Sickle cell anaemia

Pernicious anaemia

Down’s syndrome

Chronic obstructive airway disease

Malignant melanoma

Obesity

Amphetamine psychosis

Intermittent Claudication

Cerebral thrombosis

Myocardial infarction

Athlete’s foot (tinea pedus)

Amoebic dysentery

Acute alcohol poisoning

Acute renal failure

Bronchogenic carcinoma

Schizophrenia

Anaphylactic shock

Spina bifida

Hepatic sclerosis

Scurvy

Asthma

Breast cancer

Peptic ulceration

Diabetes mellitus